Akhil Raina

Akhil is a qualified lawyer in Dehli, India. He specializes in all aspects of international trade law, with a focus on WTO and dispute-settlement.

Prior to joining VVGB, Akhil worked with a legal organisation in Geneva on international trade matters, and advised two government ministries on economic law and policy. Before that, he interned with the WTO, as well as with law firms and government institutions working in trade law in India.

Currently, he is also a Marie Curie Fellow at KU Leuven, and an editorial board member for NLIU International Trade Law Journal (India). He has authored and presented many papers on WTO law and policy, and taught WTO law as a moot court coach, and teaching-assistant to professors, in India and Belgium.

Akhil is fluent in English, Hindi and Kashmiri.

Akhil Raina

E: akhil.raina@vvgb-law.com
T: +32 2 542 07 80
F: +32 2 534 58 88
T: +32 2 542 07 98


Akhil Raina works in the field of international economic law and policy, with a specialization in international trade law. His practice focuses on trade remedies and WTO dispute-settlement.

Dr. Akhil Raina is an associate at VVGB. He is a qualified lawyer in India, and works in the field of international economic law and policy. Akhil represents governments and companies in anti-dumping, anti-subsidy and safeguard investigations in Europe and Asia. he represents governments in FTA and WTO disputes. He has worked in sectors including industrial, consumer and high-tech products.

Akhil is alo involved in academia, having previously taught international trade law in India and Belgium. His works have been published in the Cambridge International Law Journal, the Journal of World Trade, the Global Trade and Customs Journal, and the Indian Journal of International Economic Law. he regularly coaches university students for the ELSA / John H. Jackson moot court competition, and has been a mentor with the legal NGO, TradeLab. He is also an editorial board member for the NLIU International Trade Law Journal (India).

Previously, Akhil worked with law-firms and government institutions in New Delhi; and with the WTO and a legal organization in Geneva. He also previously advised two government ministries on economic law matters. Akhil holds bachelor's degrees in science and law from National Law University, Jodhpur (India), and a master's degree in international economic law and policy (IELPO LLM) from Universidad de Barcelona (Spain). In 2022, he received his PhD in international law from KU Leuven (Belgium), as a Marie Curie Fellow. His dissertation, on compliance with WTO rulings, was unanimously passed by the doctoral jury, without changes (best possible outcome).

He is fluent in English, Hindi and Kashmiri and can speak basic Dutch.



  • PhD in International Law KU Leuven
  • LL.M. International Economic Law and Policy (IELPO), University of Barcelona School of Law
  • B.Sc., LL.B. National Law University, Jodhpur

Bar admissions

  • Indian qualified lawyer (New Delhi Bar)


  • English
  • Hindi
  • Kashmiri

Publications & Events

Book Chapters 

EU and Global Economic Governance: A Leader without a Roadmap? (with Prof. Wouters) in Sixty Years of European Integration and Global Power Shifts: Perceptions, Interactions and Lessons (Julien Chaisse ed.) (Hart Publishing, 2020).

Journal Articles  

  • Is the Rules-Based Multilateral Trade Order in Decline? – Current Practices, Trends, and their Impact (with Vineet Hegde and Prof. Wouters), 10 (1), Cambridge International Law Journal, 32 – 53 (2021). 
  • Legal Problems with Data Localization Requirements – The Case of the Russian Federation (with Simón Hernández), 15 (9) GLOBAL TRADE AND CUSTOMS JOURNAL, 445 – 459 (2020).
  • What is a Safeguard Measure under WTO Law?, X (2), TRADE, LAW AND DEVELOPMENT, 463 - 481 (2018).
  • The Evolution of EU Trade Law through the Prism of Competence: A Quantitative, Longitudinal Perspective (with Michal Ovádek), 53 (3), JOURNAL OF WORLD TRADE, 489 - 508 (2019).
  • Meditations in an Emergency: The Appellate Body Deadlock – What It Is, Why It’s a Problem, and What to Do About It, 13 (9), GLOBAL TRADE AND CUSTOMS JOURNAL, 376 – 386 (2018).
  • Multicolored in a Monochrome World: WTO and Conflicting Regulatory Purposes, 12 (7/8), GLOBAL TRADE AND CUSTOMS JOURNAL, 311 – 319 (2017).
  • The Day the Music Died: Good Faith in WTO Dispute Settlement and the Curious Case of Peru – Agricultural Products, 11 (2), GLOBAL TRADE AND CUSTOMS JOURNAL, 71 – 85 (2016).
  • The Question of Market Access in the field of Environmental Services: Determining and Defending its Scope, VI, INDIAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW, 84 – 122 (2014).
  • Can the ICSID Convention be a Model Law for Investment Dispute Settlement? : A persistent series of Questions, 3(1), RGNUL FINANCIAL AND MERCANTILE LAW REVIEW, 9 – 20 (2016).
  • The T(i)PP(ing) Point for Pharma: Why having TRIPS+ patentability requirements in the TPP is Bad News for Developing Countries, 22 (2), JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, 76 – 82 (2017).
  • In the Name of Arbitration: Reflecting Back and Looking Forward (with Arundathi Venkataraman), IV (1), INDIAN JOURNAL OF ARBITRATION LAW, 6 – 8 (2015).

Paper Presentations

  • Compliance with WTO Rulings and Mutually Agreed Solutions: Problems, Theory, and a Case-Study of India, presentation at 8th Biennial Conference of the Asian Society of International Law (May, 2021).
  • India and the EU at the WTO: Insights from Decision Compliance Levels, invited talk at round-table hosted by South Asian Democratic Forum (SADF), Belgium (February, 2020).
  • Making Sense of the US Narrative in DS543 (China v. US), seminar co-hosted by KU Leuven and Waseda University (September, 2019).
  • State of the (International Trade) Union: WTO Developments 2016 – Present, seminar at Centre for Global Governance Studies, KU Leuven (May, 2019).
  • The T (i) PP(ing) Point for Pharma?, at the ‘Global IP Congress’ hosted by National Law University, Delhi (2015).
  • Battling for Survival: India’s WTO dispute regarding the National Food Security Act, 2013 (with Abhinav Kumar), at a conference hosted by Gujarat National Law University (2014).

 Case Reports

  • Canada – Renewable Energy (Panel and AB Report), Elgar Encyclopaedia of Environmental Law, Vol. X, (Panagiotis Delimatsis and Leonie Reins eds.) (forthcoming, 2021).
  • United States – Certain Measures Relating to the Renewable Energy Sector (Panel Report), OXFORD REPORTS ON INTERNATIONAL LAW (forthcoming, 2021).
  • United States – Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Measures on Certain Coated Paper from Indonesia (Panel Report), OXFORD REPORTS ON INTERNATIONAL LAW (2018) ITL 168.

 Working Papers  

  • The Future of Global Economic Governance: The EU, the WTO, and the Crisis of Multilateralism (with Prof. Wouters and Vineet Hegde), Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies Working Paper No. 219 (February, 2020).  

 Online Publications

 With International Economic Law and Policy Blog

With TradeLinks


Unilateral Jurisdiction Clauses (Arbiter Dictum, 2014), https://arbiterdictum.wordpress.com/2014/03/.